TECH TALK: Good Books: Welch on Winning

Continuing with our management theme, there is another book from a practitioner: Winning by Jack Welch, with Suzy Welch as co-author. Newsweek did a cover story on the book and Welch recently, and carried an excerpt:


The team with the best players usually does win. And that is why, very simply, you need to invest the vast majority of your time and energy as a leader in three activities.

You have to evaluatemaking sure the right people are in the right jobs, supporting and advancing those who are, and moving out those who are not.
You have to coachguiding, critiquing and helping people to improve their performance in every way.

And finally, you have to build self-confidencepouring out encouragement, caring and recognition. Self-confidence energizes, and it gives your people the courage to stretch, take risks and achieve beyond their dreams. It is the fuel of winning teams.

Too often, managers think that people development occurs once a year in performance reviews. That’s not even close. It should be a daily event, integrated into every aspect of your regular goings-on. Customer visits are a chance to evaluate your sales force. Plant tours are an opportunity to meet promising new line managers. A coffee break at a meeting is an opening to coach a team member about to give his first major presentation. Think of yourself as a gardener, with a watering can in one hand and a can of fertilizer in the other. Occasionally you have to pull some weeds, but most of the time, you just nurture and tend. Then watch everything bloom.

This is what Jack Welch has to say on hiring people:

Before you even think about assessing people for a job, they have to pass through three screens. The first test is for integrity. People with integrity tell the truth, and they keep their word. The second test is for intelligence. The candidate has a strong dose of intellectual curiosity, with a breadth of knowledge to work with or lead other smart people in today’s complex world. The third ticket to the game is maturitythe ability to handle stress and setbacks, and enjoy success with equal parts of joy and humility.

I then apply the “4-E (And 1-P) Framework” for hiring that I’ve found consistently effective, year after year, across businesses and borders. The first E is positive energy. It means the ability to go go goto thrive on action and relish change. The second E is the ability to energize others, and inspire them to take on the impossible. The third is edge, the courage to make tough yes-or-no decisions. The fourth E is executethe ability to get the job done. Then I look for that final P, passiona heartfelt, deep and authentic excitement about work.

Tomorrow: Welch on Winning (continued)

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Tagging and the Semantic Web

David Galbraith writes:

When you tag an item with a keyword such as turkey. what you are implicitly saying is category=turkey. The problem with this is that sometimes category is not enough context for a tag. Meaning always requires context. Wists allows you to label the context of a tag with anything (where the default is implicitly category). In the above example you could label something as food=turkey or country=turkey. These groups of tags, metatags allow you to indicate the context of a tag and give tags greater meaning and less ambiguity. Popular metatags that people have already created include location= for places and fav= for peoples favorite movies and books etc.

By allowing people to create metatags and attaching these metatags to their own namespace you allow for the possibility of formally defining groups of metatags as an RSS module for a specific industry. In theory one can create a marketplace for RSS modules where the people creating the modules need not know or care about the technicalities of what this means. In other words if people involved in apartment rentals start to tags things in the following manner: rooms=3 square_feet=2000 monthly_rent=2000 etc., one has the beginnings of something that could be formalized as a standard module for apartment rentals with elements defined in a standard namespace.

It is possible that these early steps in grass roots classification via tagging could evolve into something more along the lines of what the original aims of the semantic web promised.

Always On World Components

Dana Blankenhorn writes:

There are two types of chips key to the Always On world. These are sensor chips and RFID chips. Both contain tiny radios. The two can also be combined.

Always On applications will use all these types of chips as clients on WiFi or cellular networks, with applications located on gateways that run at low power, with battery back-up, and have constant connections to the Internet.

So here are the parts of an Always-On solution:

* Sensor or RFID chips as clients pumping data.
* WiFi or cellular networks that transfer data.
* A robust, scalable low power server that can run applications for thae wireless network, using data from sensor or RFID chips.
* Software to provide the service and user interface.

Transforming this from an industrial into a personal mass market is the task of the Always On industry.

Mobile Marketing

The Pondering Primate has a wake-up call for search engines:

Think of just a simple SMS alert from People magazine that I get. I opted in to receive breaking news on celebrity gossip (yeah I read InTouch magazine too but only for the pictures).
People magazine with a two inch square got my attention and will provide me with something of use, and in return they send me relevant texts.

Heres what I see happening. Let’s say Procter Gamble decides to offer a breaking news service, or they do a joint marketing deal with FOX News. Send an SMS to XXXX and put in the subject “financial news alerts”. Now Procter Gamble is sponsoring an SMS alert to your phone. They can include an advertisement to shampoo along the side.

Everybody wins. I get relevant news alerts, PG gets to advertise their product and FOX News because your news service of choice.

My point with all of this. Once the Procter Gambles, FOX News realize if they create a great mobile campaign, they won’t need to be spending money on keywords thru a search engine. Procter Gamble and FOX News already has access to me.

So I say WAKEUP search engines, once mobile marketing companies start introducing some great campaigns (i’ve got some great ideas), the link between consumer and brand is created.

Watching TV Makes You Smarter

The New York Times Magazine has an article by Steven Johnson:

For decades, we’ve worked under the assumption that mass culture follows a path declining steadily toward lowest-common-denominator standards, presumably because the ”masses” want dumb, simple pleasures and big media companies try to give the masses what they want. But as that ”24” episode suggests, the exact opposite is happening: the culture is getting more cognitively demanding, not less. To make sense of an episode of ”24,” you have to integrate far more information than you would have a few decades ago watching a comparable show. Beneath the violence and the ethnic stereotypes, another trend appears: to keep up with entertainment like ”24,” you have to pay attention, make inferences, track shifting social relationships. This is what I call the Sleeper Curve: the most debased forms of mass diversion — video games and violent television dramas and juvenile sitcoms — turn out to be nutritional after all.

I believe that the Sleeper Curve is the single most important new force altering the mental development of young people today, and I believe it is largely a force for good: enhancing our cognitive faculties, not dumbing them down. And yet you almost never hear this story in popular accounts of today’s media. Instead, you hear dire tales of addiction, violence, mindless escapism. It’s assumed that shows that promote smoking or gratuitous violence are bad for us, while those that thunder against teen pregnancy or intolerance have a positive role in society. Judged by that morality-play standard, the story of popular culture over the past 50 years — if not 500 — is a story of decline: the morals of the stories have grown darker and more ambiguous, and the antiheroes have multiplied.

But another kind of televised intelligence is on the rise. Think of the cognitive benefits conventionally ascribed to reading: attention, patience, retention, the parsing of narrative threads. Over the last half-century, programming on TV has increased the demands it places on precisely these mental faculties. This growing complexity involves three primary elements: multiple threading, flashing arrows and social networks.

Technology’s 10 Most Inexcusable Failures

David Berlind has a list. Among them:

How many times have you received an appointment request from someone who doesn’t share the same e-mail system? How many times have you had to cut and paste a bazillion times from the e-mail message to your calendar?

Are your appointments replicated to some place other than your primary system? A system at home for example? A PDA? A Smart phone? Having my calendar available to me (and others) at any time and in any place is a huge advance. But here’s the rub. I’ll be in a meeting, and my calendar pops up a reminder. When I dismiss the reminder, why isn’t it then wiped out in all the other places where my calendar is replicated?

TECH TALK: Good Books: The Daily Drucker (Part 2)

An additional benefit of The Daily Drucker” is the foreword by Jim Collins, author of Built to Last and Good to Great. This excerpt is via 800-CEO-Read:

Druckers primary contribution is not a single idea, but rather an entire body of work that has one gigantic advantage: nearly all of it is essentially right. Drucker has an uncanny ability to develop insights about the workings of the social world, and to later be proved right by history. His first book, The End of Economic Man, published in 1939, sought to explain the origins of totalitarianism; after the fall of France in 1940, Winston Churchill made it a required part of the book kit issued to every graduate of the British Officers Candidate School. His 1946 book The Concept of the Corporation analyzed the technocratic corporation, based upon an in-depth look at General Motors. It so rattled senior management in its accurate foreshadowing of future challenges to the corporate state that it was essentially banned at GM during the Sloan era. Druckers 1964 book was so far ahead of its time in laying out the principles of corporate strategy that his publisher convinced him to abandon the title Business Strategies in favor of Managing for Results, because the term strategy was utterly foreign to the language of business.

There are two ways to change the world: with the pen (the use of ideas) and with the sword (the use of power). Drucker chooses the pen, and has rewired the brains of thousands who carry the sword.

Druckers genius shines best in the short paragraph or single sentence that cuts through the clutter and messiness of a complex world and exposes a truth. Like a Zen poet, Drucker packs universal truth into just a few words; we can return to his teachings repeatedly, each time with a deeper level of understanding. This wonderful collection presents these pearls of insight in one place, where you can reflect upon them one at a time, without having to read all 10,000 pages.

Buying a book is easy spend a few hundred rupees and you have it. Reading it is harder it requires a commitment of time. That is why many books are bought but few are actually read. Druckers book goes one step beyond that: it is one which makes you stop and ponder. It forces you to introspect and wonder about the way youve been doing things and suggests changes. This is a book which needs deep introspection on how our management styles need to improve these books are amongst the hardest to read, because they make us look inward. The Daily Drucker is a must read for each of us it needs to become a daily habit in our lives for reading and action.

Tomorrow: Welch on Winning

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Birth of a Baby

Last week on Tuesday (April 19), I became a father. My wife, Bhavana, gave birth to a baby boy, whom we have named Abhishek. (“Abhishek” means the bathing of a deity by constant flow of water or milk.) Abhishek is an IVF baby. Credit for Abhisheks birth is due to the husband-wife team of Dr Aniruddha and Anjali Malpani, who are not only two extraordinarily gifted doctors but also wonderful people. It is their efforts that have brought Abhishek into our lives. (Ill write about the entire IVF process and the emotional ups and downs sometime soon. UPDATE: Here is the full story.) I have put a few photos on Flickr.

While there is a lot Id like to talk to Abhishek, for now, there is this touching essay by Tom Evslin, written in 1979 (and posted recently on his blog) on the birth of his daughter:

A few weeks ago my daughter Katy was born. She started out terribly; grey, streaked with blood, and with her umbilical cord wrapped around her neck. Central Vermont Hospital took care of all that very well and now she is less the worse for wear than I am.

But she is helpless, incredibly helpless. Its been a few years since Ive had an infant to watch and Id forgotten. She cant hold her huge head up; she cant use her hands; and her eyes discover the world piece by piece at random.

No other mammal has babies nearly as helpless as ours. Even blind puppies walk to their first nursing. And the reflexive curling of Katys toes reminds me that, if she were a monkey, shed already he able to hold onto a branch.

One theory is that the head is the problem. For better or for worse, humans have brains proportional1y far bigger than those of other species. The head built to contain this giant brain has run into an evolutionary trap. Its almost too big to be born.

That is why humans have more trouble with childbirth than other species. And so, the theory goes, in order to be born at all, humans must be born prematurely. In other words, human babies are so helpless because they are still in an advanced state of fetal development. If they waited until they were as developed as other mammal babies, their heads would he too large for delivery.

I think there is another reason in the grand scheme of things why our babies are born with so much to learn.

The babies of other species come preprogrammed. They already have most basic motor skills. In general, the lower down the evolutionary ladder a species is, the more adult skills its babies have built in.

Our babies know how to nurse. Everything else they have to learn. It seems very inefficient that we have to learn to lift our heads, then learn to roll over, then creep, then walk. But I think this inefficiency serves a purpose.

While my daughter Katy is learning the simple task of making her hand touch what her eye sees, she will also he learning how to learn. As she tries and fails and tries again, her mind will learn how to retain experience. As her left hand learns what her right hand knows, her mind will learn to reason and extrapolate.

As Katy takes a year to learn the motor skills a monkey is born with, she will be preparing herself for the great task of mastering a spoken language. As she struggles pitifully to make a rattle work right, she will he learning to learn to read and write.

Above all, we are natures best learners. We have very dull eyes, puny teeth, a weak sense of smell, and we dont hear very well. Our physical prowess is probably the laughingstock of the animal kingdom. But we can learn. We learn how to learn while we learn how to walk.

Welcome, Katy, to a genuine learning experience. And good luck.

Welcome, Abhishek, to a genuine learning experience. And good luck.

Porcess Portals

Bill Burnham discusses Super Services, Process ortals and the road to Composite Applications:

In recognition of both the increasing number of web services and the increasing complexity of linking them together, a new crop of start-ups has emerged including such companies as eSigma, Bindingpoint, Xmethods, and Strike Iron. Initially these start-ups appear to have the rather mundane goal of creating directories of publicly available web services or even libraries of proprietary web services (such as Strike Iron and Xignite have done), but dig a bit deeper and you realize that their ambitions may extend much further.

Take eSigma for example. I had the opportunity to chat with its founder, Troy Haaland, the other day. As Troy explained, the simple portal-like interface of eSigma actually hides an increasingly complex infrastructure. Right now, at the core of this infrastructure is a fully functioning UDDI directory. All of the services you can browse via the portal are actually formally registered in the UDDI directory making them programmatically discoverable. The goal is to link this directory core to a higher level process management capability via a BPEL-based visual authoring/scripting platform. Not only would such a platform allow enterprising developers to easily create and, theoretically re-sell, their own super services, but more importantly it would allow enterprises to create composite applications that exist solely in the cloud. Such cloud based composite applications could then be used a back-bone of inter-enterprise applications.

In this way, what appear at first to be simple directories may ultimately be transformed into Process Portals, or sites that not only centralize web services meta-data, but host a set of custom-designed super-services and composite applications as well as the visual authoring tools needed to create them.

Virtual Offices for Smaller Companies

PortalsMag writes: “Let’s take a look at a virtual office built out of the following elements: Webmail; IM; personal calendars; an online group; and a home page to serve as a lightweight portal to aggregate these and other services. The goal of the office is to provide a basic (and free) communications and collaboration platform for geographically separated employees.”

Web 2.0

Anil Dash points to a rant by Dan on the Web 2.0 definition in Wikipedia. “It’s not the technology that wows people, it’s getting music recommendations or notification of when friends are hitting town or building ad hoc communities around the shared goal of learning to forgive. Real stuff, that people can relate to. Let’s make sure we keep that in mind.”

Next-Generation Dynamic HTML

Jon Udell writes about the use of Ajax technologies (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) for powerful UIs:

et’s focus on how this technology can deliver the kinds of dashboard views that make hearts flutter in the enterprise. Until recently, I’ve used a couple of bookmarklets to gauge reaction to my InfoWorld articles, based on the list of bookmarks pointing to an article and the Bloglines summary of citations. Now, instead, I have a Greasemonkey script that counts these things and injects the counts into the InfoWorld pages I read.

You’d think these extra requests would slow things down. But because they’re asynchronous, they don’t. The script just fires off requests. When (or if) answers come back, it interpolates them into the page. Two components make this possible. One is the scriptable DOM, which enables in-situ alteration of Web pages. The other is the XMLHttpRequest object, which is now available in all the major browsers and which supports asynchronous interaction with remote services.

Combine the two and you get a powerful system for delivering real-time alerts in the context of Web pages. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is the new name for this strategy, but it’s an old idea, and XML is optional. At its core, this is about Web pages that communicate autonomously and update themselves dynamically. You’ll soon see a lot more of these, and you may well find yourself creating some, too.

TECH TALK: Good Books: The Daily Drucker

Summer is a time of intense heat across much of India. In places like Mumbai, the humidity makes it even more unbearable outside the comforts of ones home or office. With kids having vacations and airlines offering great deals for travelling outside India (round-trip fares from Mumbai to Singapore are available for as little as Rs 10,000), summers are good times for taking off. If, like me, you cannot do that, then we have the next best alternative: read a few good books! They will take the mind away from the heat outside and provide some interesting food for thought.

My first recommendation is The Daily Drucker. As the sub-title says, it is 366 days of insight and motivation for getting the right things done. Drucker is one of those few people (Warren Buffett and Charlie Munger are others) whose every word is filled with deep meaning and requires careful consideration. Through his life, Drucker has authored over 35 books. This book compiles the best of Druckers writings in easy-to-absorb capsules. Each thought is punctuated with an action point.

Consider for example the entry for April 18. It is entitled: Decision Steps for Picking People. Drucker says that the most important thing is that the person and the assignment fit each other. He writes:

General George C. Marshall followed Five Simple Decision Steps in making people decisions. First, Marshall carefully thought about the assignment. Job descriptions may last a long time, but job assignments change all the time. Second, Marshall always looked at several qualified people. Formal qualifications, such as those listed in a resume, are no more than a starting point. Their absence disqualifies a candidate. However, the most important thing is that the person and assignment fit each other. To find the best fit, you need to consider at least three to five candidates. Third, Marshall studied the performance records of all three to five candidates to find what each did well. He looked at the candidates strengths. The things a person cannot do are of little importance; instead, you must concentrate on the things they can do and determine whether they are the right strengths for this particular assignment. Performance can only be built on strengths. Fourth, Marshall discussed the candidates with others who worked with them. The best information often comes through informal discussions with a candidates former bosses and colleagues. And fifth, once the decision was made, Marshall made sure the appointee understood the assignment. Perhaps the best way to do this is to ask the new person to carefully think over what they have to do to be a success, and then, ninety days into the job, have the person to commit it to writing.

Druckers suggested action point for the day: Follow these five decision steps when hiring someone. Understand the job, consider three to five people, study candidates performance records to find their strengths, talk to the candidates colleagues about them, and once hired, explain the assignment to the new employees.

Tomorrow: The Daily Drucker (continued)

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Make No Little Plans

Atanu Dey quotes Daniel Burnham, Chicago architect. (1864-1912): “Make no little plans. They have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized. Make big plans; aim high in hope and work, remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing, asserting itself with ever-growing insistency. Remember that our sons and grandsons are going to do things that would stagger us. Let your watchword be order and your beacon beauty. Think big.”

Journalism’s Future

The Economist writes about a speech given recently by Rupert Murdoch on the need for the newspaper industry to reinvent itself:

The decline of newspapers predates the internet. But the secondbroadbandgeneration of the internet is not only accelerating it but is also changing the business in a way that the previous rivals to newspapersradio and TVnever did. Older people, whom Mr Murdoch calls digital immigrants, may not have noticed, but young digital natives increasingly get their news from web portals such as Yahoo! or Google, and from newer web media such as blogs. Short for web logs, these are online journal entries of thoughts and web links that anybody can post. Whereas 56% of Americans haven’t heard of blogs, and only 3% read them daily, among the young they are standard fare, with 44% of online Americans aged 18-29 reading them often, according to a poll by CNN/USA Today/Gallup.

For today’s digital natives, says Mr Gillmor, it is anathema to be lectured at. Instead, they expect to be informed as part of an online dialogue. They are at once less likely to write a traditional letter to the editor, and more likely to post a response on the weband then to carry on the discussion. A letters page pre-selected by an editor makes no sense to them; spotting the best responses using the spontaneous voting systems of the internet does.

Even if established media groupssuch as Mr Murdoch’sstart to respond better to these changes, can they profit from them? Mr Murdoch says that some media firms, at least, will be able to navigate the transition as advertising revenue switches from print-based to electronic media. Indeed, this is one area where news providers can use technology to their advantage, by providing more targeted audiences for advertisers, both by interest group and location. He also thinks that video clips, which his firm can conveniently provide, will be crucial ingredients of online news.

But it remains uncertain what mix of advertising revenue, tips and subscriptions will fund the news providers of the future, and how large a role today’s providers will have. What is clear is that the control of newswhat constitutes it, how to prioritise it and what is factis shifting subtly from being the sole purview of the news provider to the audience itself. Newspapers, Mr Murdoch implies, must learn to understand their role as providers of news independent of the old medium of distribution, the paper.

The Art of Packing

WSJ has a column by Jeremy Wagstaff on how to pack for travel:

To me the big innovation in packing is the module. The thinking is simple: Why collect all the individual things we are going to take with us on our trip and then lump it together? Most of us, if the flight is not actually about to depart, make little piles of our underpants, socks, shirts, etc on our bed before cramming them into the suitcase, hoping they fit, squeezing a sock-ball here, a handkerchief there. At the other end, we throw the case on the bed, rummage around inside, with shirts, vests, scarves and boots flying everywhere in a sort of reverse action replay. It’s horrible, and if we then have to move room, hotel, or continent again on the trip chances are not a single item of clothing looks anything like when we bought it.

So technology’s answer to this problem is: Stay at home. Let someone else do the trip. No, actually, it’s modular packing, sometimes called packing cubes. It’s simple enough: Instead of throwing everything into one bag, you put them into smaller sub-bags, which then go into the big bag. So the big bag, instead of being a pile of sundry items in varying degrees of crumplitude, is a neat collection of different size sub-bags, or modules.

Technology and Development

Atanu Dey writes:

The use of high technology (x) is highly correlated with high degree of economic growth and development (y). Correlation, as economists never tire of reminding one, is not causation. Furthermore, even if there is causation, the direction of causation is not always obvious. Two variables x and y may be causally linked; but does x cause y, or does y cause x, or are they two connected through some other hidden variable z?

I am sitting in the University of California at Berkeley. (Hi from Berkeley!) The campus is full of high technology tools. Compared to what UC Berkeley has in terms of computers and bandwidth, the campus of a typical Indian university (Nagpur University, for instance) has very little. So it is tempting to believe that if Nagpur Univ were to be equipped with all the electronic gizmos and Internet bandwidth, then it too will attain the level of a UC. But that is patently absurd. What makes UCB is not the hardware (electronic or otherwise) but human and institutional capital. Human and institutional capital is what matters, not hardware. Just to drive home that point, Nagpur University in 2005 has more electronic hardware and internet bandwidth than UC Berkeley had in 1980. Yet, the capability of UCB(1980) far exceeded that of Nagpur University(2005).

It is not how much hardware or software or information one has that matters; what matters is what you do with it. And what you do with it depends on you and not on the thing. An inept author will not suddenly start writing masterpieces even if equipped with the fanciest word processing software. People will not suddenly become knowledgeable just because they have all the information of the world wide web at their finger-tips.

India’s IT and Outsourcing Industries

The Economist writes:

Optimism about India’s prospects in these businesses is based, firstly, on the sheer range of work now encompassed by the IT and BPO industries and, second, on its potential for further expansion. The business that started it alloffshore software developmentstill has plenty of room to grow. The world becomes more dependent on IT by the day. Even as new applications are churned out, old ones need maintaining and even newer ones developing.

The youthful BPO business, meanwhile, is still defining itself. At one end, say at 24/7 Customer, it involves telephone marketing to hapless British householders unaware they need a new credit card; or fielding a call from a nice lady in a bank in Exeter in western England, who wants to send a credit card by courier to Antigua, and is presumably unaware that the efficient, London-accented courier executive she deals with is sitting in Bangalore.

Such call-centres are the best-known and biggest part of BPO. At the other end of the spectrum, even high-end research-and-development work is being outsourced. The Bangalore offices of HCL Technologies, for example, is designing a back-up navigation system for Airbus.

In between, the range of business processes that can be outsourced is constantly expanding: processing insurance claims; desktop publishing; the remote management and maintenance of IT networks; compiling audits; completing tax returns; transcribing medical records; financial research and analysis. The list of possible activities is almost endless. We have barely scratched the surface, says Stefan Spohr of A.T. Kearney, a consultancy.

The biggest constraint on the growth of India’s service industries may be the available talent pool. Nevertheless, the bullish projections for Indian IT and IT-enabled services produced in 2002 by NASSCOM and McKinsey seem within reach. They forecast that the combined industries would, by 2008, employ 4m people (up from fewer than 900,000 in 2004), earn $57 billion-65 billion from exports (compared with $17 billion in 2004), and account for 7% of GDP (compared with 4%).

The challenge this poses for the firms leading the boom is how to expand fast enough to meet demand without jeopardising quality. For quality, as much as cost, is what is driving the demand. It is in this context that Bangalore’s troubles have to be seen: as the acute growing pains of a still-infant industry. It is a worry not because the difficulties are insuperable, but because some can be solved only by the government. India’s IT industry has thrived in part because, unlike most other sectors of the economy, it has largely kept the government out of its business. That period is coming to an end. Neglect, the industry is learning, is not always benign.

The Customisation Revolution

PortalsMag writes:

NetSuite’s recent debut of NetFlex, a customization and integration platform, is a reminder that both the hosted and licensed approaches to e-business are converging around the importance of giving customers more power to change, configure, and control their applications.

NetFlex’s approach is based on what NetSuite calls “Click, not code.” In other words, custom features can be set up via point-and-click interfaces, opening the door to line-of-business users to implement their own changes (e.g. to create a more industry-specific appearance, process, or template). It’s a concept that extends to integration and personalization as well, giving companies the ability to connect their NetSuite applications to other systems of record without having to engage in full-blown enterprise application integration (EAI) projects and deliver specific information based on roles.