Robert Cringely writes [in the US context]:
The obvious answer is for regular folks like you and me to own our own last mile Internet connection…The idea is simple: run Fiber To The Home (FTTH) and pay for it as a community of customers — a cooperative. The cost per fiber drop, according to Bill’s estimate, is $1,000-$1,500 if 40 percent of homes participate. Using the higher $1,500 figure, the cost to finance the system over 10 years at today’s prime rate would be $17.42 per month.
What we’d get for our $17.42 per month is a gigabit-capable circuit with no bits inside – just a really fast connection to some local point of presence where you could connect to ANY ISP wanting to operate in your city.