Atanu Dey writes:
I briefly surveyed all major areas of technological advancement, from transportation to medicine to entertainment to whathaveyou. In every single sphere, the conclusion was unavoidable, that though the advancement was made with an eye to benefit the rich, eventually the poor benefited as well. I could not come up with an instance of any technology that was developed successfully specifically for the poor. It appears to be an empirical law. How do I explain that?
A little pondering and I had what I consider the economic reasoning for that empirical fact. Briefly the story goes this way. Technology advancements have high fixed costs, the recovery of which require high initial prices. The rich are early adopters and pay for the privilege, thus underwriting the development costs. As the marginal costs are typically low, economies of scale kick in and average costs approach the low marginal costs. Note that there is a time element to the whole story. First, it takes a bit of time for the high fixed cost of development to be recovered. Second, as time goes by, there is “learning by doing.” Firms figure out how to do things more efficiently. Average costs come down further. Finally, marketplace competition forces prices to reflect low average costs.