Rethinking Education

A few days ago, Atanu and I spent a full day meeting with people who are in the education space. We discussed a diverse set of topics around education. What came out clearly was that there are two distinct approaches.

One approach is to work within the current system and see what best can be done. It assumes that the legacy that exists will be very hard to change — everyone has a vested interest in keeping things the way they are. Parents are not keen to take risks with their kids, the ones in the education business would prefer to stick to the status quo since they are already in the business, the government seems to be quite happy with the way things are, and the kids don’t have much of a choice anyways.  So, even as some of us believe that the current education system needs a dramatic revamp, it is not easy to figure out where to begin. (Perhaps, there isn’t an entrance at all for those not already in.)

The second approach, advocated by Atanu, is to create a parallel system from scratch — encompassing K-12 and beyond. This thinking starts with the belief that the current education system is fatally flawed and there is no way to apply band-aid. What is needed is a new system, a new standard. And there will be early adopters among parents and kids who will be drawn to this new system.

My personal vote goes for the second approach. The world has changed a lot, especially in the past couple decades, and the simplicity that needs to be there in the education system has vanished. One hears of kids as young as two and three years going for coaching so they can get into the preferred school of their parents. IIT coaching now starts in the sixth standard. It is reaching ridiculous heights (or lows). And then look at  the quality of the product that comes out of this system.

Education needs disruptive innovations if India has to benefit from its demographic dividend.

94 thoughts on “Rethinking Education

  1. “IIT coaching now starts in the sixth standard. It is reaching ridiculous heights (or lows). And then look at the quality of the product that comes out of this system.”

    Rajesh, in the new system, whenever u make the suggestions / come up with a structure, see if you can allow the child six months to one year to actually figure out what future course will make him / her happy. The argument against this, that you do not know enough to decide at that time, is probably not true, IMO.

  2. There are two sides to this.

    a) what the system delivers
    b) what the users expect the system to deliver

    I suspect while there are systemic fixes for the former, the latter needs a cultural change. We have come to look at education and degrees merely as a means to security, a job and a possibly better life. The “education” bit is a little lost in there somewhere – and obviously encourages the producers of this industry to cater to this “need for a degeree, all else be damned”.

    If there’s anyway I can help, I’d love to. Count me in. Am not a formal “educator” but feel quite strongly about this.

  3. Is home-schooling a valid option in India? As in, if we choose to home-school, will it be recognized by the relevant boards, etc.? I personally believe that real education happens outside the school, and parents can make the most difference. I’d written a piece on this topic post the tragic events in the Delhi school re. the asthmatic child’s death:

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  5. I believe the state of current education system is indeed the proven one and worked so far all these years.

    If any fix is intended at all, it should be aimed at primary education, where the existing system is overburdening the kids with homeworking in addition to full day teaching.

    During my primary education, as a kid I was taken down heavily, with illogical governments taking pride in imparting mother tongue, hindi and english all before I moved to secondary education. What a nonsense of wasting time away learning 3 languages, of which I never found any use with Hindi, no offense meant.

  6. In the context of smitha’s comment above, I have a different view regarding the teaching of languages.

    I think that at the lowest grades — say grades K through 4 — children should be taught around 4 languages. Mother tongue, regional language, English and one other. In my case, for instance, (a Bengali born and brought up in Maharashtra), this could have been Bengali, Marathi, English and Hindi.

    Children have an amazing ability for learning languages. That’s nature at work. Anecdotal evidence: my brother’s daughter when she started to speak, was equally fluent in Bengali, Marathi and Hindi — merely because she was interacting with others who spoke different languages with her. She would turn to the Marathi neighbors and speak in Marathi and then to her parents in Bengali without missing a beat.

    I think that language is sorely neglected in our system. I believe (note believe) that the more languages one learns when one is young, the smarter one gets.

    Of course, the way language is taught is all wrong, IMNSHO. They start idiotically with grammar and other bs. What they should do is to teach the language to mimic how a child learns — immersion. Nobody taught my niece any grammar of the three languages she speaks well. One day when she is twelve, she may or may not learn the grammar.

    I am sure that whatever English grammar I had been subjected to I have forgotten. But I am not the least bit handicapped when I communicate in English.

    And one final point: I am against rote learning. But I am convinced that memorization of long well-written pieces is a must if you want to learn a language. Memorize a few hundred pages of great prose and poetry over a number of years, and I bet that you will get a good education in the language.

  7. @smitha

    Nothing personal here. But many products of our education system believe that languages are useless especially the regional languages. By usefulness they mostly mean “doesn’t help to earn money”.

    Yes, learning hindi at most save you a few rupee with Rickshaw driver and bhajiwala but it doesn’t help you to make big bucks the way english does.

    The whole fuss with usefulness/uselessness of Hindi or any language is that the teachers fail to teach it to their students in right way. After learning Hindi in school no student feels like reading Premchand or Mahadevi Varma. They don’t really understand that it helps them to make a better person, a better citizen. It expands the emotional and intellectual horizons of an individual. It helps them to get firmly rooted in their culture (oh I just heard some people shouting Communal Communal).

    I am not sure how the languages should be taught in schools. But if some student feel Hindi is useless even after learning it for few years in school, its a grand failure of the education system he has gone through.

    As a kid I studied in Marathi Medium school where I never read textbooks more than once. I had read all the shelves of Government Village Library by the time I had reached 7th standard. Which included “Panipat” , Almost Complete works of Pu La Deshpande and C .V Joshi.

    After reading all Marathi stuff I moved over to Hindi Upanyaas, I had read Don Movie script even before i saw it :). This was purely because of encouragement that my parents and teachers gave me in school and it changed me as and individual. But it had nothing to do with What grammer they taught me.

    Today I cant imagine how pathetic my life would have been if I had not read Pu La, Chi Vi joshi , Vishvas Patil, Ghalib , Translated Kaalidas, Bacchan and so many others.

    I have read parts of a research (it was some fat book, will provide the name as soon as I recollect it) that states children below 7 years have unbelievable capacity to learn languages. But they should be exposed to it even before entering K.

    One of my scientist friend(!) is talking with his 3 year kid in around 7 languages. Let us see how his experiment bears fruits 🙂


    Thanks for bringing this topic up on the blog. I too would vote for the second approach given. Hope to see more from you on the same topic.

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  9. I agree with you guys in that a fundamental shift is needed. In addition to languages, I feel the teaching of social sciences (economics & history in particular) need special attention.
    It was only after I graduated from school that I started reading history. and I enjoy it a lot. I believe that history is more important than what we assign it.
    Secondly, languages should be taught as literature, not as grammar.
    As for students preparing for IIT from 6th, I am a product of ywo years of Kota. And I believe now that I should not have gone to IIT from an education perspective, even though they still are the most memorable years of my life.

  10. This is a tricky situation. While it is true that our education system churns out crammers in majority, we cannot have a situation where we start building a new education system from scratch. Each system has its own perils. So, when you build a system from scratch it is bound to be ridden with bugs as well. And, it would take many years to know those bugs before we can start addressing the bugs and resolve issues.

    So, I am of the opinion that we need to address the shortcomings of the education system. Bear in mind that we all have studied under the same education system. Things have taken a downturn for the worse in the past decade, because schools seems to have lost relevance in terms of levels of education provided.

    Infact, I am of the opinion that the education system needs to start working towards an integrated model of School + Home Study. The number of subjects being taught in the school should be reduced to the basic subjects like English, Mathematics and maybe Science.

    Anything over and above this needs to be a part of ‘Home Study’ curriculam. The student should study History, Geography, Civics, General Knowledge at Home under the supervision of parents and he should be judged for his knowledge based on online exams. These exams should be conducted on the same pattern as in the West. The teacher should upload the assignments and student can take these assigments from his computer.

    This will reduce the load on students, and we can easily take off 3-4 periods of his everyday school routine.

    Now, if this phase succeeds, we can work towards integrating the same model for the primary subjects like English, Maths and Sciences.

    The entire thought process is to limit the number of hours spent in school doing nothing and integrating our education system with whatever is prevalent across the globe.

  11. And, do not forget that with the changing society, we need to educate our students and make them young people of character, charisma courage and patriotism.

    I see these values missing in the Gen-X. Push them to the wall and they give up everything. Ask them anything of India, and they are more busy in their own small every day battles.

  12. @Rajesh, thanks for stirring up a hornet’s nest! This is a topic that many of us are passionate about, as is evident in the comments and responses to this post.

    My view is that disruptive innovation has a place in many things, but not in something as well-rooted in society as our present education system… There is just too much at stake for parents.

    Your own observations confirm that most people within the system are averse to change of any sort – that is typical human response to any new idea. However, with a new system, even if you get some folks to switch over, many others will not fearing what will happen to their children once the system’s runway ends.

    Already, I hear many concerned and informed parents voicing their fears of how their children will eventually have to cope up with the “mainstream” once they graduate from their gurukuls or whatever liberal-minded school system they follow. That fear is what keeps many of them from sending their kids down the less-trodden path in the first place! And until a critical mass of people *do* choose the new route, the fear of the majority would always remain…

    There is also the fact that the off-beaten is slowly becoming as senseless as the mainstream. In one of Atanu’s post, he’s also written about how shocked he was to find a mindless tome on economics being taught to an IB student – something that he would find hard to comprehend!

    Given all this, I think a more agreeable option would be to make small but significant changes in the existing system (even if that takes more effort), so that more and more people eventually benefit from the changes.

    As a parent of two, I would certainly welcome a move in that direction.

    Hope that helps…

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  14. Also I think there is a need to re-think the awards-based focus on education and extra-curricular activity. This leads to a small set of students participating and winning the extra-curricular competitions year on year. So a weak student just keeps getting weaker as he never gets the opportunity to change. Ideally, every student should be allowed and encouraged to participate in activities – even if they aren’t good at it.

  15. the fact hat people start preparing for IIT exam applied approach) CBSE and ICSE and other totally theoretical suggest, how bad we are at applied side of things an mind you still people will still not qualify

  16. Rajesh -I would say that if a new school is started and it takes the existing syllabus and makes it exciting for kids then we have a winner. Innovation needs to happen on teaching front.
    I am not sure if starting from scratch(option 2) is possible.


  17. It is good that Rajesh realises that an overhaul of the system can be too disruptive. Working within the system can be more effective than is generally imagined.

    However the moot point here is to clarify what our aims are. Other than a vague sense of discontent over our educational system, I am yet to see a clear delineation of what exactly is wrong and what are the solutions that are on offer. It would be nice if Rajesh can devote a post to this.

    We should remember that people all over the world debate learning systems and we are yet to find one that is satisfactory for student, teacher and administrator all included. There can be no easy answer, if there is any all of us ought to be interested.

  18. how about a good/exclusive channel for teaching things to school kids.

    can supplement/ replace existing ways – programmes should be good enough to encouraged even schools to show this as part of the class.

  19. Starting a new system – hasn’t this been attempted by many people/organizations before? How many have succeeded? I think, education doesn’t end at school, it continues when kids are home. Sure, the schools are more money making concerns these days rather than places of learning. But how many parents spend enough time with their kids these days? I taught a couple of kids tuition for a little while after I quit my job and wanted a source of income. Would you believe that one of the kids was in 1st grade? I don’t understand the need to have kids if you can’t be responsible for them or if you don’t have time for them. The parents just didn’t care if the kids were learning. They were only interested in the marks they got, and there too they didn’t want to put in any of their own efforts, just money. On the other hand, I know of a manager from my previous employer, who has given his immediate career goals a backseat because he wants to spend time with his kids when they are still young.
    So, my take is – if the parents don’t care much, what good is even the best school going to do for kids?

  20. Seo India writes that since a new system will have bugs, it is not advisable to replace a dysfunctional system.

    That is an opinion and if one were to follow that line of thought, change in the human world would be painfully slow. Sure, all systems have bugs. The important thing to do is to weigh the cost of making do with patching the current system against the cost of redesigning the system from scratch.

    It is all very well to talk about uploading and downloading of assignments and tests and online study and home study of subjects under the guidance of parents. That may or may not be a good idea for those who have parents who have the time and the ability to teach their kids, and for those who have computers at home and have the time and opportunity. But for the vast majority, education is not something that they can provide at home. It is like asking people that they should give medical attention to kids at home instead of going to a professional such as doctors.

    There is a reason why schools exist: they specialize in teaching the next generation. There is little point in not reforming the education system and instead telling people to teach their kids themselves.

    An attitude that says, “OK, the schools suck. So here’s what we do. Let’s tell parents to teach the kids at home,” is not amenable to bringing about the desperately required changes in the schooling system.

  21. There is a 3 approach and probably parents in india never see that as a option . Its called homeschooling . 2 Million Kids in US use that approach . And the idea is that educated parents know more about teaching their kids that teachers do . parents will always give one-on-One time with their kids …teaches have 30 others kids to deal with .
    There is new book about how a family did homeschooling for 20 years ( they had 6 kids) in a poor neighhood in US and they got the best education a parent can give their kids .

    In india …i think that approach will work since social norms will always look for a certficate of some kind and no college will take kids studied at home .

    But if you are comparing differnt ways or better ways then there this is a home school is a better options .

    There is also a book called “smart kids , smart schools” which talks about the school system needs to change .

    Note :- i studied in Bombay schools and did my engg. in Kolhapur . My kids now go to US schools .

    There is a vast difference in style & perception .

  22. Great Debate.

    The system should consider the learning style of the student and natural interests and teachers should be counsel students and parents.

    Also family business / work shall be considered. I have observed that atleast 50% children prefer to continue what their parents did (Eg. Doctors, Engineers, Bankers, Retailers, Agriculturist, Drivers, Priests, Traders…)

    Primary syllabus shall be restricted to core principles. Optional syllabus could suggest several topics for further study. Facility (including library) shall be available to enable students to read as wide and as deep as possible. Also there should be plenty of extra curricular activities to enable students to understand the world better.

    Further, numerous options for students willing to pursue vocation courses, starting from 8th standard.

    While English education has its own advantages, education in regional languages shall be encouraged (with key words learnt in english) and foundation for English and Hindi (apart from mother tongue) shall be laid right from KG.

    Not everyone can become an engineer and need to become so. Today, this is decided more by the money the parents could spend and less by the student’s ability.
    We need skilled workers in millions who could work smart and be highly productive.
    Minimum remuneration in any trade shall be attractive to pursue and sustain a decent life.

    I vote for a parallel system as the current system is beyond repair (and will amount to boiling the ocean).

    There will be a good number of early adopters and it could become a big hit (like mobile phone revolution).
    Also there are few schools already doing radically superiour education and a good research of success of such schools would really help.

  23. Atanu said; -> “There is a reason why schools exist: they specialize in teaching the next generation”

    I guess that no one really knows what the next generation is looking for or will look for, most future scenarios are imaginary and will be out of tune with future realities, particularly when the future is changing as fast as it is now.

    For instance, twenty years back, no one could have foreseen the mass induction of engineers as software coders et al, and the current demand for them. Or that lowly graduates with fake English accents and crazy hairdo’s would populate the outsourcing industry. And all this while most state governments remained intent on removing English’s primacy as a language of aspiration and choice.

    It goes to reason that you cannot interpolate the current successes in bio tech and say the future will need more gene tinkerers. Or for that matter nano technicians. Let us accept that the future is simply unknown.

    We need to train kids to adapt and be succesful in a world we or they cannot really foresee. And for that, part of the solution may lie in teaching kids how to fish, as Atanu points out elsewhere, getting information is easy these days, gaining understanding isn’t.

    The first step may be to remove the focus from rote to thinking, which directly increases the load on the teacher both while teaching and evaluating pupils. In rewarding thinking we will be creating individuals who are capable of processing this vast store of information.

    Now this is nothing new, we are only refinding the roots of the Western intellectual tradition post Bacon. Perhaps that is all that may be necessary.

    And don’t blame the kids, they are victims of a system they had no choice in making…as members of a species enamored of shortcuts, they are merely taking the shortest path.

  24. The problem is not with education system but with what happens next.

    In India, education has nothing to do with a child’s interest but is focused on satisfying parent’s aspirations.

    Parents are very concerned that their children get quality education since job opportunities are limited in India.

    Professional education, parents feel will help their kids get a good job & stay ahead in rat race – and they are right.

    Solution for the problem can be – let the students actually start working & earning after their 10+2. After 3/4 years of graduation many of them would become entrepreneurs (job creators) rather than job seekers.

    There will be a boom in jobs. Focus will shift to skills from degrees.

    When an ordinary factory worker, grocer, fresher or villager starts earning around Rs 20k a month, the pressure on getting professional education and coaching will ease.

    No amount of tweaking with education system will work in India, till the time employment opportunities for average graduates/under graduates improve.

  25. I am jumping in late into this dialogue. I just saw this post through

    Here is a comment I recently made in a different location discussing Kapil Sibal’s proposal to scrap the 10th exam (–The-new-Sibal-proposal-to-scrap-Class-10-board-exams—.html).
    Here are my thoughts. The proposal to scrap the 10th exam does not solve any underlying problem in the system. What will happen is that all the focus will turn to some other singular event like the 12th exam or there will be some new alternative invented.

    I think many of us agree that our current education system focuses too much on rote learning, regurgitation and the number of marks scored in 1 exam. It has been my experience, that systems behave based on what the measurement principle is and what the incentives in the system are. Today’s system measures children based on memory and how many different things they know, rather than on applied knowledge. The incentives are also highly stacked in favour of children, teachers and schools who do better in the measurements.

    If we really want to change our system, we need to make a fundamental change in how we measure what children are learning. Not only do we need to go to a more continuous assessment model (agreeing with Sumo), we also need to change what we test for. We should be testing for applied knowledge, which is how students apply the principles they have learnt rather than their memory and ability to regurgitate the principles. Students should be given more real-world challenges that they attempt to solve using the principles they learnt. If we do this, more focus will be devoted by teachers and schools to ensure that children truly understand and can apply what they learn.

    Another fundamental change we need to make is in what aspects of education our system focuses on. Today, a majority of our schools focus on what are considered to be analytical subjects – Science, Maths etc., while leaving to the dust the creative subjects – Languages, History etc., We need a combination of both analytical and creative skills to succeed. A couple of years ago, I saw a report that said that a majority of Fortune 500 (500 largest companies in the world) CEOs had Liberal Arts degrees not MBAs or Engineering degrees. A Liberal Arts degree is a general arts, languages degree that is conferred by many US universities. The report said that these people had got to the top because they often solved problems that others had been stumped by. Why were they able to do so better than others? It said that because they have a Liberal Arts education which focuses on creativity, they were often able to think in a new way and were not restricted by the fundamental principles that many of the analytical degrees like MBA and Engineering infuse in students. These folks basically created breakthrough solutions and thus rose to the top. The analytical thinking helps, but it is not the only factor.

    A third and more radical idea, which many people disagree with me on is the multiplicity of boards of education in India today. For India, I believe strongly that we need one board. Each board seems to have a different focus and often different testing principles. Even more worrisome, is that each seems to have a different way of awarding marks in their exams. This leads to significant skewing towards one board or the other. For example, a few days ago, I saw the Tamilnadu Govt announce counseling for medical seats. There were a minuscule number of CBSE and other board students called for counseling and virtually 95% of the qualifiers were from the TN state board. I found it hard to believe that the children who came from CBSE schools were so overwhelmingly poor in the academic qualifications vs the TN state board students. I think it is more because there is no normalization of marks between the various boards. So my suggestion for solving it is to go to a unified board across India.

    What we really need to do is identify the fundamental problems and solve them rather than have ministers like Kapil Sibal toy with half-baked ideas. Education is what has made India what it is till now. However, we need fundamental educational changes to adapt India to the coming decades and to continue its rise. We need to find the right solutions and apply them as quickly as possible.

    Once we identify some of these fundamental problems (I am sure there are more than I have listed), and figure out how to solve them, it becomes abundantly clear that we need to rip the system apart and build it together again.

    A parallel system which takes time to evolve and emerge will not help at all. Such a system will have early adopters who however will be perceived to be rich or of independent means, who can afford to set their children up on careers of their choice irrespective of the “marks” they get. For the masses who depend on “marks” alone, there will be a significant disincentive to adopt to the new system. They will not be on a level playing field. For the change to succeed, the entire Indian mass must come along from the beginning. Ergo, that leaves us with only one choice – transform the current system from the inside out. If possible, do it all at once and if not, one step at a time.

  26. i wish toknow Mahadevi Varma Rural Education Org which ran degree courses for BA and BE d is it still on and has it got recognised by the INDIAN EDUCATION ORG

  27. Interesting discussion group…everyone is focussing on secondary/college education ! The neglect of primary education should be in focus.Control of education by bureaurcrats is a severe problem in India. Lack of trained teacher is the third problem. And above all no body knows what are the goals of education. Before we comment on this issue, we should read Swami Vivekananda’s view.

  28. The discussions were interesting…thanks to all…
    I am a teacher, took my B.Ed two years ago. Right now doing M.Ed. For one year taught in an unaided cbse school. Enjoyed being with the kids (aged 6-12) but equally disgusted because I found the kids were not enjoying school. I felt being within the system one can try to bring small changes and so I had suggested that why don’t we reduce the periods from 7 to 3 for 1st and 2nd standard children. But neither colleagues nor the principal felt anything wrong with present system… I felt things were moving mechanically…morning assembly seemed too monotonous… I would suggest you all to read John Holt’s ‘Instead of Education’ and we can have more discussions.

  29. The rethinking should also be in the early education in india , people think that sending the kids to school is a burden however the actual burdon is too much of homework by making them write more. We always look at the acadamic side of learning and design our education from the begining. The acadamic is the left side of the brain which is always trained. Lets try to train the right side also as before the age of 5 the right brain growth is maximum and no one try to enhance it. Some of the great benefits of right brain learning or a balanced brain education is to have creativity,Intutive power , balanced mind and photo-memory and much more…. Ensure to unlock the hidden potentials of the young genius minds to give them a bright future by training your kids on the right Infant education today.

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  31. This discussion is really good. I also support this, now a days schools and school kids are living machine life only ,that is not a cool place.Even mothers and parents also force the childrens ot do more work. they are not thinking own and freely now.They always in machinery life so after they grow up also their life spoil due to this activity.There is no calm environment here.Recently i have seen some discussion regarding this same topic in mothers website called in the following link
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  33. A parallel system which takes time to evolve and emerge will not help at all. Such a system will have early adopters who however will be perceived to be rich or of independent means, who can afford to set their children up on careers of their choice irrespective of the “marks” they get.

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  50. Возможности очистки воды на этом не заканчиваются. Мы также проектируем и подбираем системы очистки воды в соответствии с требованиями заказчика. Наши услуги включают оценку, дизайн, продажи и техническую поддержку.Совершенно вкусная питьевая вода, мягкая вода, свежесть дождевой воды – оборудование для очистки воды SUYUM и фильтры для воды сочетают в себе все эти функции. Наша миссия состоит в том, чтобы удалить все потенциально вредные элементы из воды через фильтр для воды и дать нашим клиентам представление о чистом естественном вкусе воды. Оборудование, предлагаемое SUYUM, значительно улучшает качество воды независимо от ее использования.Мы предлагаем различные варианты очистки воды. Каждый вариант предусматривает многоступенчатую очистку воды от следующих элементов.

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